How Often Do Steam Key Generators Actually Work

  1. How Often Do Steam Key Generators Actually Work At Home
  2. How Often Do Steam Key Generators Actually Work On Youtube

Nov 06, 2018 How do Generators Work? Electricity is such an integral part of daily lives that we don’t even question it. But how many of us know where electricity comes from and how it actually works. There are so many people asking the question: how does a generator work? I suppose that’s because we depend on them so regularly.

  • Here is a video of us actually generating these keys with our free steam key generator which you will be able to download after scrolling down a bit. That’s not all though, we do not simply generate the keys like other tools show you as well but we also take the extra step to redeem them on Steam to prove to you that they are actually working.
  • This is really a multiple part question. How does the key-system work? How do programmers usually create software that works based on a key. I am an intermediate programmer, but I never learned much of the security/anti-piracy aspect of it. How do they create and/or recognize the keys to allow the software to start working?
The inverted U-tube bundle of a Combustion Engineering steam generator.

Steam generators are heat exchangers used to convert water into steam from heat produced in a nuclear reactor core. They are used in pressurized water reactors (PWR) between the primary and secondary coolant loops.

In typical PWR designs, the primary coolant is high-purity water, kept under high pressure so it cannot boil. This primary coolant is pumped through the reactor core where it absorbs heat from the fuel rods. It then passes through the steam generator, where it transfers its heat (via conduction through metal) to lower-pressure water which is allowed to boil.


Unlike PWRs, Boiling water reactors (BWR) do not use steam generators. The primary coolant is allowed to boil directly in the reactor core, and the steam is simply passed through a steam turbine. While theoretically simple, this has a downside for maintenance. While passing through the core, primary coolant water is subjected to high neutron flux. This activates oxygen and dissolved nitrogen in the water. The major reaction[1] is: an atom of oxygen-16 absorbs 1 neutron and emits 1 proton, becoming nitrogen-16. Nitrogen-16 has a 7-second half-life and produces a gamma ray when it decays back to oxygen-16. The 7-second half-life is long enough for the water to circulate out of the reactor. In a BWR, this means that the water may be in the steam turbine when it releases its gamma rays. Although no long-lived radioisotopes are produced by this reaction, the gamma radiation means that humans cannot be present in a BWR's turbine hall during reactor operation and for a short time afterwards.

By contrast, in a PWR, the steam generator separates the activated primary coolant water from the secondary coolant which passes through the steam turbine. Thus, humans can freely access a PWR's turbines and other steam plant components during operation. This reduces maintenance cost and improves up-time.


Vertical recirculating-type steam generator (typical of Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering-designed reactors) and components.

In commercial power plants, there are two to four steam generators per reactor; each steam generator can measure up to 70 feet (21 m) in height and weigh as much as 800 tons. Each steam generator can contain anywhere from 3,000 to 16,000 tubes, each about .75 inches (19 mm) in diameter. The coolant (treated water), which is maintained at high pressure to prevent boiling, is pumped through the nuclear reactor core. Heat transfer takes place between the reactor core and the circulating water and the coolant is then pumped through the primary tube side of the steam generator by coolant pumps before returning to the reactor core. This is referred to as the primary loop.


That water flowing through the steam generator boils water on the shell side (which is kept at a lower pressure than the primary side) to produce steam. This is referred to as the secondary loop. The secondary-side steam is delivered to the turbines to make electricity. The steam is subsequently condensed via cooled water from a tertiary loop and returned to the steam generator to be heated once again. The tertiary cooling water may be recirculated to cooling towers where it sheds waste heat before returning to condense more steam. Once-through tertiary cooling may otherwise be provided by a river, lake, or ocean. This primary, secondary, tertiary cooling scheme is the basis of the pressurized water reactor, which is the most common nuclear power plant design worldwide.

In other types of reactors, such as the pressurised heavy water reactors of the CANDU design, the primary fluid is heavy water. Liquid metal cooled reactors such as the Russian BN-600 reactor use a liquid metal, such as sodium, as the primary coolant. These also use heat exchangers between primary metal coolant and the secondary water coolant, and thus their secondary and tertiary cooling is similar to a PWR.

A steam generator's heat-exchange tubes have an important safety role, because they separate radioactive and non-radioactive fluid systems. (The primary coolant becomes briefly radioactive from its exposure to the core, and also has trace amounts of longer-lived radioactive isotopes dissolved in it, such as dissolved atoms of iron from pipes.) Because the primary coolant is at higher pressure, a ruptured heat-exchange tube would cause primary coolant to leak into the secondary loop. Typically this would require the plant to shutdown for repair. To avoid such primary-secondary leaks, steam generator tubes are periodically inspected by eddy-current testing, and individual tubes can be plugged to remove them from operation.[2] As with many nuclear components, mechanical engineers determine the inspection frequency using the known rates of corrosion and crack propagation in the material. If an inspection finds that a tube wall is thin enough that it might corrode through before the next scheduled inspection, the tube is plugged. (Plugging a tube is typically easier than attempting to repair it. There are many small heat-exchange tubes, and steam generators are designed with excess tubes to allow some to be plugged.)

Entire steam generators are often replaced in plant mid-life, which is a major undertaking. Most U.S. PWR plants have had steam generators replaced.[2]


The nuclear powered steam generator started as a power plant for the first nuclear submarine, the USS Nautilus (SSN-571). It was designed and built by the Westinghouse power company for the submarine; from there the company started its development and research of nuclear-powered steam generators.[3] Once peaceful nuclear reactors were legalized for use as power plants, power corporations jumped at the opportunity to utilize the growing development of nuclear powered steam generators. Westinghouse built one of the first nuclear power plants, the Yankee Rowe nuclear power station (NPS), which also used a nuclear powered steam generator, in 1960. This power plant had a one hundred MWe (mega watt electric) output. By comparison, some modern plants have over 1100 MWe output. Eventually, other international companies such as Babcock & Wilcox and Combustion Engineering began their own programs for research and development of the nuclear power steam generator.


How Often Do Steam Key Generators Actually Work At Home

This Babcock & Wilcox nuclear steam generator moved in a special train (restricted to 20 mph) via the Penn Central Railroad and Southern Railway from Barberton, Ohio to a Duke Energy site in Oconee, S.C. This generator weights 1,140,000 lbs and is a record shipment for the Railroad at that time (1970).

Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering designs have vertical U-tubes with inverted tubes for the primary water. Canadian, Japanese, French, and German PWR suppliers use the vertical configuration as well. Russian VVER reactor designs use horizontal steam generators, which have the tubes mounted horizontally. Babcock & Wilcox plants (e.g., Three Mile Island) have smaller steam generators that force water through the top of the OTSGs (once-through steam generators; counter-flow to the feedwater) and out the bottom to be recirculated by the reactor coolant pumps. The horizontal design has proven to be less susceptible to degradation than the vertical U-tube design.

Materials and construction[edit]

The materials that make up the turbine and pipes of a nuclear powered steam generator are specially made and specifically designed to withstand the heat and radiation of the reactor. The water tubes also have to be able to resist corrosion from water for an extended period of time. The pipes that are used in American reactors are made of Inconel, either Alloy 600 or Alloy 690. Alloy 690 is made with extra chromium and most facilities heat treat the metal to make it better able to resist heat and corrosion. The high nickel content in Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 make them well suited for resisting acids and high degrees of stress and temperature.


The annealed, or heat treated, Alloy 600 was prone to tube denting and thinning due to water chemistry. Plants that used the Alloy 600 in their water tubes therefore had to install new water chemistry controllers and change the chemicals they put in the water. Due to this, pipe thinning has been taken care of, but on rare occasions, tube denting still occurs, causing leaks and ruptures. The only way to prevent this is regular maintenance and check-ups, but this forces the reactor to shut down. In some cases, plants replaced their Alloy 600 tubes with Alloy 690 tubes and a few plants were shut down. To prevent future problems, manufacturers of steam turbines for nuclear power plants have improved their fabrication techniques and used other materials, such as stainless steel, to prevent tube denting.[4]

Typical operating conditions[edit]

Steam generators in a 'typical' PWR in the USA have the following operating conditions:

Primary side (tube side)15.5 MPa
(2,250 psi)
315 °C
(599 °F)
(liquid water)
275 °C
(527 °F)
(liquid water)
Secondary side (shell side)6.2 MPa
(900 psi)
220 °C
(428 °F)
(liquid water)
275 °C
(527 °F)
(saturated steam)

Tube material[edit]

Various high-performance alloys and superalloys have been used for steam generator tubing, including type 316 stainless steel, Alloy 400, Alloy 600MA (mill annealed), Alloy 600TT (thermally treated), Alloy 690TT, and Alloy 800Mod.

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ ab'US steam generator replacement a winner'. World Nuclear News. 30 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  3. ^Outline History of Nuclear Energy, World Nuclear Association (2014)
  4. ^Everything you want to know about Nuclear Power, University of Melbourne (2014)

External links[edit]

How Often Do Steam Key Generators Actually Work On Youtube

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nuclear steam generators.
  • John M. Dyke and Wm. J. Garland, Evolution of CANDU Steam Generators – a Historical View
  • Backgrounder on Steam Turbine Issues, Nuclear Regulatory Committee (March 21, 2014)
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If you’ve heard of Steam-key scams, you know that most of them seem too obvious to fall for. But some scammers are running sophisticated, brute force operations that blanket so many developers with so many key requests that they are likely quite profitable. And Helium Rain developer Gwennaël Arbona just broke down how the entire process works in a thread on social media.

Developers on Steam can produce an infinite number of 15-digit alphanumeric codes that anyone can redeem for access to a certain game. Valve gives everyone free rein to do whatever they want with these codes (it does have some limits that are not relevant to this topic). You can give them to friends and family. They can go out to media to help promote the game. Or you can sell them on your own website or a third-party store.

I request a Steam code for a game at least once a week for my job. Sometimes I find myself requesting multiple codes a day. It is a normal and accepted business practice, but it’s one that con artists are exploiting. Anyone can write an email just like mine requesting a Steam code. And anyone can sell a Steam code on stores like Kinguin. And that’s exactly what they do.

Above: An email attempts to scam a developer for keys.

“As [with] most scams, they’re short, unprofessional-looking emails in approximate English,” Arbona wrote on Twitter. “Most developers will immediately weed them out.”


I’m sure, like me, you are confident you could spot an email like this from “[email protected]” as a scam. So why does anyone still do this? Because it works.


The reason this scam is so popular is because people can automate a lot of it. For example, you can feed developer email addresses into a bot that will then automatically send key requests from countless false accounts. Those accounts can use forms to fill in details like “%game_name%,” and they can impersonate any number of YouTubers from around the world.

Arbona saw that trend with his scammer. He found multiple emails with similar wording that all used the same Gmail tracker from a service called Deskun.

“Obviously, these email addresses are registered and used by the same bot,” said Arbona. “A single scammer is impersonating multiple public figures, requesting review keys of every Steam game, over and over, through each account.”

And it’s likely that developers ignore most of those emails. But if an automated process making potentially dozens of requests succeeds only a fraction of the time, that could still turn into real money. And if the scammer sets up their bot scripts to automatically register every Steam code developers send them with a selling service, they can generate revenue with very little effort.

Arbona was able to prove his scammer was selling keys. He responded to the request with a key for this game Helium Rain. He then checked popular key-reselling website Kinguin and found that it suddenly had a listing for Helium Rain. Previously, Kinguin didn’t have a listing for any Helium Rain codes. So Arbona bought it, and found that it was the one he just sent to “[email protected]

…And then, half an hour later, I bought my own game on @kinguinnet, which didn't had available keys before. Lo and behold :

— Gwennaël Arbona (@StrangerGwenn) October 17, 2018

But c’mon — this can’t really work, right?

In the receipt for the Helium Rain key that Arbona purchased on Kinguin, it said “brought to you by Zefir.” That account had dozens of games for sale. But that account is no longer available on Kinguin. The site confirmed to GamesBeat that it has shut it down. While Arbona found multiple other accounts that all use the same icon art of a red-bearded sheriff, Kinguin says that is one of the preset icons that anyone on the site can choose to use.

As Arbona notes, every game that Zefir was selling comes from indie developers. If Zefir is a legit merchant, major publishers do not work with them.

But Zefir didn’t just have keys to sell, as people are also buying them. Before closing, the account had approximately 850 user reviews. Those all came from sales. But not everyone who makes a purchase has to leave a review. That means that Zefir likely sold way more than 850 keys. If Kinuin is anything like other stores, only about 1-in-10 to 1-in-50 people leave a user review. Arbona did the math on that.

Now you usually get a customer review for about every 50 units sold, according to our research. So I'm estimating Zefir sold some 40,000 review keys since 2014. I don't have his financials, but selling ~$10 games he didn't bought can't be bad business.

— Gwennaël Arbona (@StrangerGwenn) October 17, 2018

Even if Zefir has sold only 10,000 keys at an average of $5, that’s still $50,000. Of course, developers like Arbona don’t get a cut of that money. Kinguin does, however, take an 11 percent slice for itself.

Kinguin does understand this is a problem. The site doesn’t serve to only provide a market for frauds. The idea is that anyone should have the right to get value from the digital codes they own. Kinguin provides a reliable place to sell that property in a way that is relatively safe compared to eBay. When it comes to sellers like Zefir and other potential frauds, Kinguin says that it takes the issue seriously.

The merchant platform has a Fraud Prevention and Response Department that has 60 people from around the world working 24 hours a day. This isn’t just a gesture toward protection. It’s about the long-term viability of Kinguin. The company recognizes that it will take years to gain the trust of gamers, and it doesn’t want to jeopardize that progress. At the same time, Kinguin doesn’t want to punish legitimate key sellers or individuals because of the actions of a Zefir.

But Kinguin admits it cannot stop this 100 percent of the time. This racket works well enough that people will continue to slip through any safeguards. And if you spam out enough key requests, you’re bound to hit a developer who’s not at their sharpest. Maybe they are desperate for media coverage. Or they decided to go through their email after working all night. Maybe they just started doing outreach for their game and are overwhelmed by the number of requests. Or maybe English is their second language.

A swindle like this doesn’t have to work every time. It just needs to work enough to make the effort worth it. And automation and bots can make it almost seem like free money.

Correction: Updated on 10/22 at 9:30 a.m. to clarify that some other accounts likely aren’t affiliated with Zefir. Also added some input from Kinguin.