In cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm. For encryption algorithms, a key specifies the transformation of plaintext into ciphertext, and vice versa for decryption algorithms. Keys also specify transformations in other cryptographic algorithms, such as digital signature schemes and message authentication codes.
Need for secrecy
In designing security systems, it is wise to assume that the details of the cryptographic algorithm are already available to the attacker. This is known as Kerckhoffs' principle — 'only secrecy of the key provides security', or, reformulated as Shannon's maxim, 'the enemy knows the system'. The history of cryptography provides evidence that it can be difficult to keep the details of a widely used algorithm secret (see security through obscurity). A key is often easier to protect (it's typically a small piece of information) than an encryption algorithm, and easier to change if compromised. Thus, the security of an encryption system in most cases relies on some key being kept secret.
- Has onboard key generator and key storage facility, as well as accelerated symmetric and asymmetric encryption, and can back up sensitive material in encrypted form. Secure hash algorithm Collisions take place often.
- Aug 17, 2015 Typically the keys must be of high-value - meaning there would be a significant, negative impact to the owner of the key if it were compromised. The functions of an HSM are: onboard secure cryptographic key generation; onboard secure cryptographic key storage and management; use of cryptographic and sensitive data material.
Trying to keep keys secret is one of the most difficult problems in practical cryptography; see key management. An attacker who obtains the key (by, for example, theft, extortion, dumpster diving, assault, torture, or social engineering) can recover the original message from the encrypted data, and issue signatures.
A smart card is a tiny secure cryptoprocessor embedded within a credit card-sized or smaller (like the GSM SIM) card which provide encryption, decryption as well as key generation within it’s security perimeter. RSA is a simple and easy to implement public key cryptographic algorithm. Nov 17, 2019 onboard secure cryptographic key generation; onboard secure cryptographic key storage, at least for the top level and most sensitive keys, which are often called master keys; key management; use of cryptographic and sensitive data material, for example, performing encryption or digital signature functions.
Keys are generated to be used with a given suite of algorithms, called a cryptosystem. Encryption algorithms which use the same key for both encryption and decryption are known as symmetric key algorithms. A newer class of 'public key' cryptographic algorithms was invented in the 1970s. These asymmetric key algorithms use a pair of keys—or keypair—a public key and a private one. Public keys are used for encryption or signature verification; private ones decrypt and sign. The design is such that finding out the private key is extremely difficult, even if the corresponding public key is known. As that design involves lengthy computations, a keypair is often used to exchange an on-the-fly symmetric key, which will only be used for the current session. RSA and DSA are two popular public-key cryptosystems; DSA keys can only be used for signing and verifying, not for encryption.
Ownership and revocation
Part of the security brought about by cryptography concerns confidence about who signed a given document, or who replies at the other side of a connection. Assuming that keys are not compromised, that question consists of determining the owner of the relevant public key. To be able to tell a key's owner, public keys are often enriched with attributes such as names, addresses, and similar identifiers. The packed collection of a public key and its attributes can be digitally signed by one or more supporters. In the PKI model, the resulting object is called a certificate and is signed by a certificate authority (CA). In the PGP model, it is still called a 'key', and is signed by various people who personally verified that the attributes match the subject.
In both PKI and PGP models, compromised keys can be revoked. Revocation has the side effect of disrupting the relationship between a key's attributes and the subject, which may still be valid. In order to have a possibility to recover from such disruption, signers often use different keys for everyday tasks: Signing with an intermediate certificate (for PKI) or a subkey (for PGP) facilitates keeping the principal private key in an offline safe.
Deleting a key on purpose to make the data inaccessible is called crypto-shredding.
For the one-time pad system the key must be at least as long as the message. In encryption systems that use a cipher algorithm, messages can be much longer than the key. The key must, however, be long enough so that an attacker cannot try all possible combinations.
A key length of 80 bits is generally considered the minimum for strong security with symmetric encryption algorithms. 128-bit keys are commonly used and considered very strong. See the key size article for a more complete discussion.
The keys used in public key cryptography have some mathematical structure. For example, public keys used in the RSA system are the product of two prime numbers. Thus public key systems require longer key lengths than symmetric systems for an equivalent level of security. 3072 bits is the suggested key length for systems based on factoring and integer discrete logarithms which aim to have security equivalent to a 128 bit symmetric cipher. Elliptic curve cryptography may allow smaller-size keys for equivalent security, but these algorithms have only been known for a relatively short time and current estimates of the difficulty of searching for their keys may not survive. As early as 2004, a message encrypted using a 109-bit key elliptic curve algorithm had been broken by brute force. The current rule of thumb is to use an ECC key twice as long as the symmetric key security level desired. Except for the random one-time pad, the security of these systems has not been proven mathematically as of 2018, so a theoretical breakthrough could make everything one has encrypted an open book (see P versus NP problem). This is another reason to err on the side of choosing longer keys.
To prevent a key from being guessed, keys need to be generated truly randomly and contain sufficient entropy. The problem of how to safely generate truly random keys is difficult, and has been addressed in many ways by various cryptographic systems. There is a RFC on generating randomness (RFC 4086, Randomness Requirements for Security). Some operating systems include tools for 'collecting' entropy from the timing of unpredictable operations such as disk drive head movements. For the production of small amounts of keying material, ordinary dice provide a good source of high quality randomness.
Key vs password
For most computer security purposes and for most users, 'key' is not synonymous with 'password' (or 'passphrase'), although a password can in fact be used as a key. The primary practical difference between keys and passwords is that the latter are intended to be generated, read, remembered, and reproduced by a human user (though the user may delegate those tasks to password management software). A key, by contrast, is intended for use by the software that is implementing the cryptographic algorithm, and so human readability etc. is not required. In fact, most users will, in most cases, be unaware of even the existence of the keys being used on their behalf by the security components of their everyday software applications.
If a passwordis used as an encryption key, then in a well-designed crypto system it would not be used as such on its own. This is because passwords tend to be human-readable and, hence, may not be particularly strong. To compensate, a good crypto system will use the password-acting-as-key not to perform the primary encryption task itself, but rather to act as an input to a key derivation function (KDF). That KDF uses the password as a starting point from which it will then generate the actual secure encryption key itself. Various methods such as adding a salt and key stretching may be used in the generation.
- Cryptographic key types classification according to their usage
- Diceware describes a method of generating fairly easy-to-remember, yet fairly secure, passphrases, using only dice and a pencil.
- glossary of concepts related to keys
- ^'What is cryptography? - Definition from WhatIs.com'. SearchSecurity. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
- ^'Quantum Key Generation from ID Quantique'. ID Quantique. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
- ^Matthew Copeland; Joergen Grahn; David A. Wheeler (1999). Mike Ashley (ed.). 'The GNU Privacy Handbook'. GnuPG. Archived from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- ^Bidgoli, Hossein (2004). The Internet Encyclopedia. John Wiley. p. 567. ISBN0-471-22201-1 – via Google Books.
Onboard Secure Cryptographic Key Generation 1
A hardware security module (HSM) is a physical computing device that safeguards and manages digital keys for strong authentication and provides cryptoprocessing. These modules traditionally come in the form of a plug-in card or an external device that attaches directly to a computer or network server. A hardware security module contains one or more secure cryptoprocessorchips.
Humans have tried to establish and maintain confidential lines of communication for millennia, rarely with enduring success. During World War II governments and military organizations invested heavily in encryption systems (cryptographic 'defense') and code breaking (cryptographic 'offense'). However, civilian and commercial adoption of encryption systems lagged considerably, in large part due to legal and regulatory constraints.
As global trade and the financial industry flourished after World War II, and as national economic security became more strategic, commercial exploitation of strong encryption emerged as a national imperative in the United States and in several other countries. In the early 1970s the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) sponsored a standardization process for cryptographic algorithms to be available for civilian use. IBM submitted its Data Encryption Standard (DES) on a royalty free basis for the NBS's consideration (and U.S. National Security Agency review), and the U.S. declared DES the U.S. commercial symmetric-key encryption algorithm standard in 1977. Within the same year IBM introduced the IBM 3845, the first generally commercially available (i.e., civilian) HSM that was directly attached (via IBM's channel I/O architecture) to general purpose IBM computers, including IBM mainframes. The IBM 3845 included secure key entry devices (cards and PIN pads) for master key loading, random number generation capabilities for seeding, and persistent storage for key materials. IBM introduced enabling software, notably a predecessor to IBM's Integrated Cryptographic Service Facility (ICSF), to allow application programmers to take advantage of the HSM's services. The IBM 3845 helped launch and secure modern electronic banking, such as national and international Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) and payment card networks. IBM quickly introduced a second generation IBM 3845 HSM that supported both DES and TDES. Other vendors then introduced various HSMs, also based initially on DES then TDES.
HSMs have continued to evolve and improve ever since, but many modern HSMs, including IBM's, still broadly resemble the IBM 3845's basic architecture: direct attachment (typically now via dedicated network or bus attachment, sometimes with the HSM embedded), some level of tamper protection (or at least tamper evident packaging) in varying degrees and certification levels, some mechanism for loading and managing key materials with varying levels of trust, random number generation capabilities, persistent storage, and software features (drivers, libraries, etc.) to access the HSM's services from both general purpose and specialized computing environments, including transaction processing systems.
HSMs may have features that provide tamper evidence such as visible signs of tampering or logging and alerting, or tamper resistance which makes tampering difficult without making the HSM inoperable, or tamper responsiveness such as deleting keys upon tamper detection. Each module contains one or more secure cryptoprocessor chips to prevent tampering and bus probing, or a combination of chips in a module that is protected by the tamper evident, tamper resistant, or tamper responsive packaging.
A vast majority of existing HSMs are designed mainly to manage secret keys. Many HSM systems have means to securely back up the keys they handle outside of the HSM. Keys may be backed up in wrapped form and stored on a computer disk or other media, or externally using a secure portable device like a smartcard or some other security token.
Because HSMs are often part of a mission-critical infrastructure such as a public key infrastructure or online banking application, HSMs can typically be clustered for high availability and performance. Some HSMs feature dual power supplies and field replaceable components such as cooling fans to conform to the high-availability requirements of data center environments and to enable business continuity.
A few of the HSMs available in the market have the capability to execute specially developed modules within the HSM's secure enclosure. Such an ability is useful, for example, in cases where special algorithms or business logic has to be executed in a secured and controlled environment. The modules can be developed in native C language, .NET, Java, or other programming languages. Further, upcoming next-generation HSMs can handle more complex tasks such as loading and running full operating systems and COTS software without requiring customization and reprogramming. Such unconventional designs overcome existing design and performance limitations of traditional HSMs. While providing the benefit of securing application-specific code, these execution engines protect the status of an HSM's FIPS or Common Criteria validation.
With the advent of Trusted Execution Environments (TEEs), some claim that HSMs no longer need to depend on proprietary hardware architectures and physical tamper protection. Rather, they can exploit the security properties of the TEE to protect the confidentiality and integrity of both the secret keys and the application code. This enables 'soft HSMs' such as the Fortanix Self-Defending Key Management Service to be deployed using off-the-shelf hardware, virtual machines, and cloud servers while providing similar security guarantees to traditional HSMs. Moreover, such solutions can utilize cloud-native technologies to simplify scaling. There is also the possibility of executing custom code plugins within the TEE. However, these guarantees provided by soft HSMs are not similar to those provided by proprietary hardware architectures and physical tamper protection, and various standards organizations do not accept these arguments.
Due to the critical role they play in securing applications and infrastructure, HSMs and/or the cryptographic modules are typically certified to internationally recognized standards such as Common Criteria or FIPS 140 to provide users with independent assurance that the design and implementation of the product and cryptographic algorithms are sound. The highest level of FIPS 140 security certification attainable is Security Level 4 (Overall), to which only one HSM has been successfully validated as of August 2018. When used in financial payments applications, the security of an HSM is often validated against the HSM requirements defined by the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council.
A hardware security module can be employed in any application that uses digital keys. Typically the keys must be of high value - meaning there would be a significant, negative impact to the owner of the key if it were compromised.
The functions of an HSM are:
- onboard secure cryptographic key generation
- onboard secure cryptographic key storage, at least for the top level and most sensitive keys, which are often called master keys
- key management
- use of cryptographic and sensitive data material, for example, performing encryption or digital signature functions
- offloading application servers for complete asymmetric and symmetric cryptography.
HSMs are also deployed to manage transparent data encryption keys for databases and keys for storage devices such as disk or tape.
HSMs provide both logical and physical protection of these materials, including cryptographic keys, from disclosure, non-authorized use, and potential adversaries.
HSMs support both symmetric and asymmetric (public-key) cryptography. For some applications, such as certificate authorities and digital signing, the cryptographic material is asymmetric key pairs (and certificates) used in public-key cryptography. With other applications, such as data encryption or financial payment systems, the cryptographic material consists mainly of symmetric keys.
Some HSM systems are also hardware cryptographic accelerators. They usually cannot beat the performance of hardware-only solutions for symmetric key operations. However, with performance ranges from 1 to 10,000 1024-bit RSA signs per second, HSMs can provide significant CPU offload for asymmetric key operations. Since the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is recommending the use of 2,048 bit RSA keys from year 2010, performance at longer key sizes is becoming increasingly important. To address this issue, some HSMs now support elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), which delivers stronger encryption with shorter key lengths.
PKI environment (CA HSMs)
In PKI environments, the HSMs may be used by certification authorities (CAs) and registration authorities (RAs) to generate, store, and handle asymmetric key pairs. In these cases, there are some fundamental features a device must have, namely:
- Logical and physical high-level protection
- Multi-part user authorization schema (see Blakley-Shamir secret sharing)
- Full audit and log traces
- Secure key backup
On the other hand, device performance in a PKI environment is generally less important, in both online and offline operations, as Registration Authority procedures represent the performance bottleneck of the Infrastructure.
Card payment system HSMs (bank HSMs)
Specialized HSMs are used in the payment card industry. HSMs support both general-purpose functions and specialized functions required to process transactions and comply with industry standards. They normally do not feature a standard API.
Typical applications are transaction authorization and payment card personalization, requiring functions such as:
- verify that a user-entered PIN matches the reference PIN known to the card issuer
- verify credit/debit card transactions by checking card security codes or by performing host processing components of an EMV based transaction in conjunction with an ATM controller or POS terminal
- support a crypto-API with a smart card (such as an EMV)
- re-encrypt a PIN block to send it to another authorization host
- perform secure key management
- support a protocol of POS ATM network management
- support de facto standards of host-host key data exchange API
- generate and print a 'PIN mailer'
- generate data for a magnetic stripe card (PVV, CVV)
- generate a card keyset and support the personalization process for smart cards
The major organizations that produce and maintain standards for HSMs on the banking market are the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council, ANS X9, and ISO.
SSL connection establishment
Performance-critical applications that have to use HTTPS (SSL/TLS), can benefit from the use of an SSL Acceleration HSM by moving the RSA operations, which typically requires several large integer multiplications, from the host CPU to the HSM device. Typical HSM devices can perform about 1 to 10,000 1024-bit RSA operations/second. Some performance at longer key sizes is becoming increasingly important. To address this issue, some HSMs  now support ECC. Specialized HSM devices can reach numbers as high as 20,000 operations per second.
An increasing number of registries use HSMs to store the key material that is used to sign large zonefiles. An open source tool for managing signing of DNS zone files using HSM is OpenDNSSEC.
On January 27, 2007 deployment of DNSSEC for the root zone officially started; it was undertaken by ICANN and Verisign, with support from the U.S. Department of Commerce. Details of the root signature can be found on the Root DNSSEC's website.
A hardware cryptocurrency wallet is a HSM in the form of a portable device.
Notes and references
- ↑ Ramakrishnan, Vignesh; Venugopal, Prasanth; Mukherjee, Tuhin (2015). Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Engineering, Management and Security 2015: ICIEMS 2015. Association of Scientists, Developers and Faculties (ASDF). p.9. ISBN9788192974279.
- ↑ 'Secure Sensitive Data with the BIG-IP Hardware Security Module'(PDF). F5 Networks. 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- ↑ Gregg, Michael (2014). CASP CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner Study Guide: Exam CAS-002. John Wiley & Sons. p.246. ISBN9781118930847.
- ↑ 'Electronic Tamper Detection Smart Meter Reference Design'. freescale. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- ↑ 'Using Smartcard/Security Tokens'. mxc software. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- ↑ 'World's First Tamper-Proof Server and General Purpose Secure HSM'. Private Machines. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- ↑ 'Self-Defending Key Management Service™ (SDKMS) Fortanix'. fortanix.com. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- ↑ 'Encryption solutions'. Ultra Electronics. Archived from the original on October 18, 2016. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
Ultra also boasts the world’s only network-attached Hardware Security Module (HSM) utilising a cryptographic module that is certified to FIPS 140-2 Level 4 overall.
- ↑ 'Official PCI Security Standards Council Site - Verify PCI Compliance, Download Data Security and Credit Card Security Standards'. www.pcisecuritystandards.org. Retrieved 2018-05-01.
- ↑ 'Support for Hardware Security Modules'. paloalto. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- ↑ 'Application and Transaction Security / HSM'. Provision. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- ↑ 'Transitions: Recommendation for Transitioning the Use of Cryptographic Algorithms and Key Lengths'. NIST. January 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
- ↑ F. Demaertelaere. 'Hardware Security Modules'(PDF). Atos Worldline. Archived from the original(PDF) on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- ↑ 'Barco Silex FPGA Design Speeds Transactions In Atos Worldline Hardware Security Module'. Barco-Silex. January 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- ↑ 'SafeNet Network HSM - Formerly Luna SA Network-Attached HSM'. Gemalto. Retrieved 2017-09-21.
- ↑ 'ICANN Begins Public DNSSEC Test Plan for the Root Zone'. www.circleid.com. Retrieved 2015-08-17.
- ↑ Root DNSSEC
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